“A world divided into compartments, a motionless, Manicheistic world, a world of statues: the statue of the general who carried out the conquest, the statue of the engineer who built the bridge; a world which is sure of itself, which crushes with its stones the backs flayed by whips: this is the colonial world.” -Franz Fanon, Concerning Violence
“On the other side of the bitter struggles against domination and for the liberation of the imagination, there opens up a multiply dispersed zone in which we are gripped by vertigo. But this is not the vertigo preceding apocalypse and Babel's fall. It is the shiver of a beginning, confronted with extreme possibility.” -Édouard Glissant, Poetics of Relation
“Treason en masse, tumult, gathering together, the mutual collaboration required to confront the prison authorities and the police...How else were they to express the longing to be free? How else were they to make plain their refusal to be governed?” -Saidiya Hartman, The Anarchy of Colored Girls Assembled in a Riotous Manner

After the Charlottesville Unite the Right fascist rally in 2017 at the statue of Robert E. Lee led to the murder of Heather Heyer, a wave of statue removals followed. This group came together on social media to assemble a crowd-sourced syllabus called “All Monuments Must Fall.”

The “fall” in the title was inspired by South Africa’s Fall-ism movement that had begun with the removal of the statue of Cecil John Rhodes and gone on to challenge a rise in student tuition as #FeesMustFall and then created a movement against white supremacy, patriarchy and homophobia. The Situationist provocation of our 2017 title hoped to see such a movement emerge in other settler colonies and the metropoles that created them.

In 2020, following the police murders of George Floyd and Breona Taylor, and the vigilante killing of Ahmaud Arbery, such a movement was ignited. One of its principal gestures has been the widespread targeting and removal of racist and colonial statues. Unlike in 2017, these participatory and popular actions have pushed past monuments that might be considered offensive even by mainstream white opinion to tackle Columbus, Washington, Jefferson and the very foundations of settler colonialism.

At the same time, activist and educational institutions of all kinds are looking to transform their practices this fall by engaging directly with the questions of how to remove racist memorials and build anti-racist, decolonial, anti-antiblackness, anti-patriarchal, anti-transphobic learning. As the terms indicate, we are perhaps still in a moment of refusal, even as there is a growing sense that abolition will require comprehensive and ground-up transformation.

This second iteration of “All Monuments Must Fall” adds materials that describe, enumerate and analyze the 2020 Black-led uprisings in relation to monuments and memorials. It is a transitional tool to help learn how to reconfigure and recalibrate collective relations to the past and how to imagine different futures that are not predicated by the plantation.

The materials are gathered by topic and there are far more than any one class could use or read. The idea is to give readers, teachers and learners of all kinds a shortcut to what’s available. At that point, it’s up to them what happens next.

We look forward to a review of this period entitled “All the Monuments Have Fallen.”

Additional materials can be submitted at



version 2.0 compiled in July of 2020

1. 2020 U.S. Statue Actions and Removals (organized by state)

Statues removed survey

Indian reporting on US protests

Sutter statue removed Sacramento CA

Columbus removed Sacramento CA

CA: Junipero Serra Statue Down

San Francisco and Columbus

Juneteenth in San Francisco

Statue removal and Decolonizing the Asian Art Museum SF

Hartford CT Columbus down

Waterbury CT Columbus down

Delaware: Whipping post removed

DC statues fall Juneteenth

Emancipation Memorial Debate in DC

Stone Mountain, GA

Stone Mountain GA Controversy

Miami FL Columbus painted

Boston MA Columbus beheaded

Boston MA debate over Lincoln statue

Baltimore MD: Columbus in the harbor

Native activists down MN Columbus

Columbus removed, St Louis MO

Raleigh NC Juneteenth

Confederate statue relocated NC

Pitt County NC statue removal

Graham NC statue removal debate

NC Monument Law

On the artist/activist shot in Albuquerque NM

After protests planned, Santa Fe NM commits to remove racist monuments

Epstein statue put up Albuquerque NM

Buffalo, NY. McKinley statue attacked

Roosevelt Statue removed NYC

Roosevelt Statue debate in NYC

Jefferson statue down in Portland OR

Pioneer statues removed OR

Oñate statue down

Shooting at statue protest, Albuquerque NM

Diego de Vargas statue removed NM

Columbus Down in Columbus OH

Columbus Boxed up Philadelphia

Denton TX Confederate statue removed

Columbus in the Lake, Richmond VA

Confederate statues Richmond VA

Judge blocks Lee removal, Richmond VA

Stonewall Jackson removed, Richmond VA

Hans Christian Heg statue removed, Madison WI

1a. Location and databases of monuments

Kevin M. Levin ‘Recent Confederate monument removals’

Wikipedia list of monuments removed during George Floyd protests

Map of Columbus Monuments in US

List of Black persons killed by police in the US

Data analysis of Confederate Monuments

Survey 6.13.20

NY Times survey 6.24.20

Photo survey 7.2.20

Southern Poverty Law Center, “Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy,”

Database of North Carolina Confederate Memorials:

Historical Marker Database Civil War Monuments:

Animated map of all Confederate monuments over time:

2. 2020 Global Statue Actions and Removals

Musée quai Branly, Paris, repatriation action

Belgium: Leopold II statues removed

Aotearoa New Zealand Maori Protest Colonial Statue

Ukraine Statue Hacked


Banksy on Colston

Historian against taking them down

Put them in museums (paywall)

Colston statue and Decolonize

Colston statue and White People

Report from India on UK

Colston statue, Bristol

Daily Mail (right-wing tabloid) reviews statue movement

Black British historian David Olusoga on Colston:

Statue of Robert Milligan, slave trader, removed

UK Govt. against statue removal

Cecil J. Rhodes statue: protest

Cecil Rhodes statue, Oxford, falls

Rhodes Statue only part of decolonizing

Black British artist Eddie Chambers on UK statue removal

3. Curricula and Monuments

Schmahmann, B. (2019). Public Art and/as Curricula: Seeking a New Role for Monuments Associated with Oppression. In Parker G. (Author) & Jansen J. (Ed.), Decolonisation in Universities: The politics of knowledge (pp. 182-201). Johannesburg: Wits University Press.

Christiat, Warren, and Jack Christian. "THE MONUMENTS MUST GO: Reflecting on Opportunities for Campus Conversations." South: A Scholarly Journal 50, no. 1 (2017): 47-56

Nelson, Louis P. "Object Lesson: Monuments and Memory in Charlottesville." Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 25, no. 2 (2018): 17-35.

Zainab Bahrani. "Destruction and Preservation as Aspects of Just War." Future Anterior: Journal of Historic Preservation, History, Theory, and Criticism 14, no. 1 (2017): 107-19.

UK Memorials

Celeste-Marie Bernier et al (eds), Inside the Invisible: Memorialising Slavery and Freedom in the Life and Works of Lubaina Himid Liverpool University Press 2019

UK memorials as archaeology

US Memorials

Latin America Memorials

Judith Baca: ‘Whose Monument Where? Public Art in a Many-Cultured Society’

Europe Memorials

Cynthia J. Becker (2019): Confederate Soldiers, Voodoo Queens, and Black

Indians: Monuments and Counter-Monuments in New Orleans, de arte

A Confederate Museum?

Santa Fe Native People Challenge Colonialist Reenactment

Removing statues is a first step

4. Monumental Theory

I. 2020 Essays and Debates

Boston Arts and Cultural Workers in Demand of Racial Equity and Social Transformation

Removal Makes History

Society of Architectural Historians Call for Statue Removal

Sarah Bond on race, anatomy and sculpture

Scott Kurashige, American Studies Association President, Statement on BLM

“My Body is a Confederate Monument” Caroline Randall Williams

Frederick Douglass on the Emancipation Monument (1876)

Greg Sholette, “Reimagining Monuments” h

For a Confederate Statue Graveyard

Courtney Baker “The Loud Silence of Monuments”

What to do with Confederate Statues

Twisted Sifter, Utah Monument Altered

Interview with Erin L. Thompson on taking down statues

Nicholas Mirzoeff ‘All The Monuments Must Fall’

Confederate Statues as real estate incentive

Simone Browne: “How Surveillance Has Always Reinforced Racism”

David Graeber ‘A Cop is a Bureaucrat with a Gun’

NPR podcast with Prof. Manisha Sinha on statue removal

II. Key Texts

Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Whose culture is it, anyway?” in Cosmopolitanism

Madeline H. Caviness (2003), “Iconoclasm and Iconophobia: Four Historical Case Studies,” Diogenes 50(3): 99–114

Hugh Gusterson (2017), “Reconsidering How We Honor Those Lost to War,”

Huyssen, Andreas. "Monument and memory in a postmodern age." The Yale Journal of Criticism 6.2 (1993): 249.

Jessica Namakkal, “Renaming as Decolonization”

WJT Mitchell “What Do Monuments Want?” and Michael Taussig “Monuments Must Do Better” from “Monuments, Monumentality, Monumentalization” at DIA

Adrian Parr, “Deleuze and Memorial Culture” (2008)

John Peffer “Censorship and Iconoclasm: Unsettling Monuments” RES 48 (2005): 45-60.

Francoise Choay, The Invention of the Historic Monument. (Monument and Historic Monuments; The Concept of the Historic Monuments as Such.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001

Kristin Ross, The Emergence of Social Space (1988)

Andrew Culp, “A Radical Cartography: Spatializing Power,”

Bhakti Shringarpure, “Swarm, Demolish, Destroy: Rage Against the Monuments from Mali to Martinique, The Funambulist 11 (2017).

Javier Arbona, “Forget Me Not” on police memorials (2015), The New Inquiry

Simon Sheikh, “Planes of immanence, or The form of ideas: Notes on the (anti-)Monuments of Thomas Hirschhorn,” Afterall vol. 9 (2004)

Michael Taussig, Defacement (Stanford, 1999)

Sergiusz Michalski, Public Monuments: Art in Political Bondage 1870-1997. London: Reaktion books, 1998.

Robert S. Nelson and Margaret Olin, Monuments and memory, made and unmade (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004)

III. Monuments and Nationalism

Deborah Bright, “Victory Gardens: The Public Landscape of Postwar America.” Multiple Views: Logan Grant Essays on Photography, 1983-89, Daniel P. Younger, ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991, 329-361.

Micki McElya, The Politics of Mourning: Death and Honor in Arlington National Cemetery (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016)

IV. Background

Sanford Levinson, Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (Duke UP, 1998)

Kenneth Gross, The Dream of the Moving Statue (Penn State University Press, 1992)

Kim Dovey, Framing Places: Mediating Power in Built Form (Psychology Press, 1999)

Robert Bevan, The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War (London: Reaktion Books Ltd, 2016)

5. Confederate Monuments

I. 2017: Monuments Fall

a. Charlottesville

Bree Newsome, “Go ahead, topple the monuments. All of them,” Washington Post.

On the Robert E. Lee statue in Charlottesville

Nicholas Mirzoeff, “All the Monuments Must Fall #Charlottesville”

L.V. Anderson, “Does Charlottesville Mark A Turning Point For Confederate Monuments In America?”

Josh Marshall, “Some Thoughts on Public Memory,” TPM 14 August 2017

Summary video for teaching:

Keeanga Yamahtta Taylor, “No More Charlottesvilles,” Jacobin

Links to responses by historians:

b. United States

Rebecca Solnit on removing monuments in New Orleans

Arizona Confederate monuments: h

On Durham and the McNeel Marble Co: Stassa Edwards, “Confederate Monuments Aren’t History, They’re a Cheap Cultural Memory”Jezebel

Sarah Beetham, “From Spray Cans to Minivans: Contesting the Legacy of

Confederate Soldier Monuments in the Era of ‘Black Lives Matter.’” Public Art

Dialogue 6, no. 1 (2016): 9-33.

David A. Graham (2016) “The Stubborn Persistence of Confederate Monuments,”

Coilin Parsons, “Decolonizing Georgetown,”

II. World views and parallels

James Glaser, “What to do with Confederate Statues?” (comparison with Russia) The Conversation

Canadian view:

Joel McKim (UK) “Yes, the Monuments Should Fall,”

Collection of original documents on the Baltimore Stonewall Jackson monument that was taken down assembled by Ken Ehrlich

Uganda statue “disappears” (2012):

Yarden Katz, “Time to take the great white men of science off their pedestals,” Guardian 9/19/17.

III. Background histories

Kirk Savage, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves. (1991)

Dell Upton, Chapter One, What Can and Can’t Be Said: Race, Uplift and Monument Building in the Contemporary South

Grace E. Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940

James W. Loewen, Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong (1999)

IV. Women and the United Daughters of the Confederacy

Tracy Thompson, “The South Still Lies About the Civil War,” Salon (2013)

Cynthia Mills and Pamela H. Simpson, eds., Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art and the Landscapes of Southern Memory (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2003).

Caroline E. Janney, Burying the Dead but Not the Past: Ladies' Memorial Associations and the Lost Cause

Karen L. Cox, Dixie's daughters the United Daughters of the Confederacy and the preservation of Confederate culture

V. Public discourse about the monuments

Mayor Mitch Landrieu’s speech regarding New Orleans’s removal of monuments:

Descendent of Lee says it’s time for his ancestor’s statues to come down:

6. Indigenous Monuments and Memorials

I. Histories

Keith Camacho, Cultures of Commemoration: The Politics of War, Memory, and History in the Mariana Islands (U Hawai’i P, 2011)

Michael A. Elliott (ed.), Custerology: The Enduring Legacy of the Indian Wars and

George Armstrong Custer (U Chicago, 2008).

II. Sam Durant’s Scaffold (2017)

Olga Viso, “Learning in Public: An Open Letter about Sam Durant’s Scaffold

“Native American Artists Respond.” Art News.

Sam Durant interview.

Report in Hyperallergic

III. Decolonizing Memory

Matthew Irwin, “Native American Students Fight to Remove Colonial Imagery from University of New Mexico,” (2016)

Ginger Thompson, “ As a Sculpture Takes Shape in Mexico, Opposition Takes Shape in the U.S.” (2002)

IV. Indigenous Memory

Nicholas A. Browne and Sarah E. Kanouse (eds), Re-Collecting Black Hawk: Landscape, Memory, and Power in the American Midwest (U Pittsburgh P, 2015

Andrew Denson, Monuments to Absence: Cherokee Removal and the Contest over Southern Memory

Michael Trujullo, “Onate’s Foot, Remembering and Dismembering in Northern New Mexico,” Aztlán: A Journal of Chicano Studies 33:2 Fall 2008

Tonya Davidson “Narratives of National Belonging at Ottawa Monuments: The Canadian Tribute to Human Rights and Enclave: The Women’s Monument” Topia 36

7. Queering the Monument

John Q “an idea collective interested in public scholarship, interventions, and Memory.”

Wesley Chenault, Andy Ditzler, Joey Orr, “Discursive Memorials: Queer Histories in Atlanta's Public Spaces” (2010)

John Q, “The Campaign for Atlanta: An Act of Research,” QED: A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking 1.2 (2014): 15–37.

Erik N. Jensen, “The Pink Triangle and Political Consciousness: Gays, Lesbians, and the Memory of Nazi Persecution,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1 and 2 (2002) 319-349

The Names Project -- AIDS Memorial Quilt

Charles Morris III, Remembering the AIDS Quilt. Michigan State University Press, 2011

8. Rhodes Must Fall/ Fees Must Fall/Decolonize the Curriculum: South Africa

Achille Mbembe “Decolonizing Knowledge and the Question of the Archive” (2015)

RMF in Conversation with Achille Mbembe PART 1 filmed by Wandile Kasibe

Francis B. Nyamnjoh, #RhodesMustFall. Nibbling at Resilient Colonialism in South Africa (Langaa RPCIG, 2016)

The People vs The Rainbow Nation (2016)

Attack on Sarah Baartman monument:

Cynthia Kros, “Rhodes Must Fall: archives and counter-archives,” Critical Arts Vol. 29, 2015

Brenda Schmahmann, “The Fall of Rhodes: The Removal of a Sculpture from the University of Cape Town,” Public Art Dialogue (2016) 6:1, 90-115

Metalepsis in Black (2016)

Jess Auerbach, “What a new university in Africa is doing to decolonize social sciences,”

Susan Booysen (ed.), Fees Must Fall, (Johannesburg: Wits UP, 2016)/

Brian Kamanzi, “Decolonizing the Curriculum: the silent war for tomorrow,”

Talya Lubinski, “If we burn, there is ash,” exhibition at Wits University, South Africa,

Conversation between RMF activists and Achille Mbembe:

Achille Mbembe, “Decolonizing Knowledge and the Question of the Archive,”

9. French Revolution

Erika Naginsky, “The Object of Contempt,” Yale French Studies no. 101 (2001): 32-53.

Stanley J. Idzerda, “Iconoclasm during the French Revolution,” The American Historical Review 60, 1 (1954): 13-26.

Todd Porterfield, “The Obelisk at the Place de la Concorde,” in The Allure of Empire: Art in the Service of French Imperialism 1798-1836.

10. Situationism

Guy Debord, “Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography” (1955),

Gil Wolman and Guy Debord “User’s Guide to Détournement” (1956)

McKenzie Wark, The Spectacle of Disintegration (New York: Verso, 2013).

11. Monumental Histories

Robert S Nelson, Margaret Olin “Monuments and Memory, Made and Unmade” (2003)

Dario Gamboni, "Image to Destroy, Indestructible Image” (2002)

Robert Musil “Monuments”

Thomas Stubblefield “Lights, Camera, Iconoclasm: How Do Monuments Die and Live to Tell about It?” (2014) & "Do Disappearing Monuments Simply Disappear? The Counter-Monument in Revision" (2011)

Marita Sturken, “The Wall and Screen Memory” in Tangled Memories (UC Press, 1997), on Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Javier Arbona, “Anti-memorials and World War II Heritage in the San Francisco Bay Area: Spaces of the 1942 Black Sailors’ Uprising”

Brown, Thomas J. Civil War Monuments and the Militarization of America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019.

Savage, Kirk. Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America, New Edition.. PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press, 2018

On Sabra-Shatila Palestinian refugee camps as monuments

Santhi Kavuri-Bauer, Monumental Matters: The Power, Subjectivity, and Space of India’s Mughal Monuments (Durham: Duke UP, 2011).

Nicholas Mirzoeff Roosevelt Statue AMNH-

Donna Haraway, “Teddy Bear Patriarchy: Taxidermy in the Garden of Eden, New York City, 1908-1936 Social Text, No. 11 (Winter, 1984-1985)

Bellion, Iconoclasm in New York: Revolution to Reenactment (Penn State University Press, 2019)

David Gissen. "The Rights of Monuments." Future Anterior: Journal of Historic Preservation, History, Theory, and Criticism 14, no. 1 (2017): 71-77

Brown, Thomas J. Civil War Monuments and the Militarization of America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019.

Morrissey, Katherine G. "Monuments, Photographs, and Maps: Visualizing the U.S.-Mexico Border in the 1890s." In Border Spaces: Visualizing the U.S.-Mexico Frontera, edited by Morrissey Katherine G. and Warner John-Michael H., 39-65. TUCSON: University of Arizona Press, 2018. Accessed June 16, 2020.

Wendy Bellion, “Iconoclasm in America: From Ritual to Reenactment,” Memoria e Ricerca 57:1 (Jan.-Apr. 2018): 11-24

Bellion, with Valerie Hegarty, Jo Applin, Debbie Hess Norris, and Jae Gutierrez, “Art and Destruction,” American Art 31:1 (spring 2017)

Statue of George III destroyed 1776 Journal of the American Revolution (2014):

Denson, Andrew. Monuments to Absence: Cherokee Removal and the Contest over Southern Memory. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017

Greani, Nora. "Les Monuments Du Septennat à Brazzaville: Une Statuaire Publique Pour La Renaissance Nationale." Cahiers D'Études Africaines 57, no. 227 (3) (2017): 619-40

Mozambique 1975: film of statue removal

Marschall, Sabine. "Monuments and Affordance: Multisensory Bodily Engagements with the Landscape of Memory in South Africa." Cahiers D'Études Africaines 57, no. 227 (3) (2017): 671-90.

Freschi, Federico, Brenca Schmahmann, and Lize Van Robbroeck,, eds. Troubling Images: Visual Culture and the Politics of Afrikaner Nationalism. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2020.

Sabine Marschall Public Memory in the Context of Transnational Migration and Displacement (Palgrave MacMillan, 2020)

Confronting the Relics of the Old South

Ulrich Baer on Wiley, Mutu and Walker

Suffragist Memorial, Central Park NY

Stone Mountain

12. Monuments Fall in the Soviet Bloc

Edit Andras, “Public Monuments in Changing Societies,” ARS (43) 2010

Collection of photos of fallen monuments:

Edit András - “Vigorous Flagging in the Heart of Europe: The Hungarian Homeland under the Right-Wing Regime” e-flux journal 53

Kristina Norman, “After War,”

Albert Boime, “Perestroika and the Destabilization of the Soviet Monuments,” ARS, 1995.

Dario Gamboni, “The Fall of ‘Communist Monuments’” in The Destruction of Art (Yale, 1997)

Katherine Verdery, The Political Lives of Dead Bodies: Reburial and Postsocialist Change. New York, Columbia University Press

13. Films on and about the Fall of the Monument

Laura Mulvey “Disgraced Monuments” (1994)

Filipa César, Cacheu (2012)

Eisenstein, opening sequence of October

“Sikitiko” (2010), a prize-winning short Dutch film about actions against a statue of Leopold II (of Belgium, colonial ruler of Congo)

Sandra de la Loza, “Fort Moore: Living Monument,”

Vice documentary on Charlottesville (caution: offensive material)

Theo Eshetu, “The Return of the Axum Obelisk” (2009),

14. African American Monuments

K Sue Jewel, From Mammy to Miss America and Beyond: Cultural Images and the Shaping of US Social Policy

"The Mammy Washington Almost Had,"

Renée Ater , "Slavery and Its Memory in Public Monuments," American Art 24, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 20-23.

Aleia Browne and Adrianne Russell, “Museums and #BlackLivesMatter,”

Aleia Brown , Adrianne Russell  “We Who Believe in Freedom Cannot Rest,” The Incluseum (2015),

La Toya Ruby Frazier, Carrie Mae Weems and Sarah Lewis, “Vision and Justice in Racialized America,” video of panel discussion

Equal Justice Initiative, “National Lynching Memorial,”

Samuel Sinyangwe, “I'm a black Southerner. I had to go abroad to see a statue celebrating black liberation,” Vox

Elizabeth Yeoman, “Je Me Souviens:: About the St. Armand Slave Cemetery, Memory, Counter-Memory and Historic Trauma. TOPIA: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies #12, 2004.

15. European and U.K. Contexts

Hans Haacke at the German Bundestag:

Engels Statue in Manchester:

London’s “Murder Mile” of imperialist statues: h

“Hands Of(f) Congo” about actions against Leopold II statues:

NYT: Franco Took Decades to Leave the World Stage. His Statue? Only Days.

Barcelona topples the final reminder of Franco's regime

Spain's monument to Franco: A divisive reminder

Erasing Franco's memory one street at a time

16. Central/South Asian Contexts

Finbarr Barry Flood, “Between Cult and Culture: Bamiyan, Islamic Iconoclasm, and the Museum,” 84, 4 (2002): 641-659.

Sushil Srivastava, “The Abuse of History: A Study of the White Papers on Ayodhya,” Social Scientist 22, 5/6 (1994): 39-51.


Why the Battle for India’s Past is a Fight for Its Future:

Equestrian memorial of King Edward removed in Delhi:

17. Middle Eastern / North African / Iraqi Contexts

Mada Masr: Tahrir monument met with skepticism

Guardian: “Tahrir Square memorial is attempt to co-opt revolution, say Egypt activists”

NYT “Egyptian Protesters Destroy Tahrir Square Monument Erected by Interim Government” (2013)

Failed Architecture: Erasing the Remnants of a Revolution

The Telegraph: Libyan protesters destroy Gaddafi monument

Protesters destroy Hafez al-Assad statue in Suwayda

Jadaliyya: Recalling the Past: The Battle over History, Collective Memory and Memorialization in Egypt

Netanyahu Toppled: Golden Statue of PM Taken Down by Israelis

Max Fisher, “The Truth About Iconic 2003 Saddam Statue-Toppling,”

Fred Bohrer, “The Destruction of Art and Antiquities in Our Time,”

Maryam Monalisa Gharavi (2007), “The Legacy of Sabra and Shatila,” Electronic Intifada

18. The Americas

“Women Never Forgotten: The Murals and Memorials of Ciudad Juarez,” Frontera NorteSur (New Mexico State University),

19. Artist’s Projects, Ephemeral Memorials, and Anti-Memorials

Ian Alan Paul, Negative Monument, Poster, 2018

Raphael Lozano-Hemmer “Voz Alta”--ephemeral memorial for the student massacre in Tlatelolco, Mexico 1968, and Invisible Monument, “an ongoing series of contributory audioscapes where social movements started and changed history,”

Joseph DeLappe, The 1,000 Drones -- A Participatory Memorial, 2014 ,

Joseph DeLappe, The Drone Project, 2014,

Yvevgeniy Fiks, Monument to Cold War Victory, 2014

Wafaa Bilal, and Counting…, 2010.,

Sophie Calle “The Detachment” (artist project) 1996

On Bryan C Lee’s Paper Monuments:

Amina Menia, Enclosed, 2012

Hassan Darsi, Le Point Zéro, 2014

Life of A Craphead, “King Edward VII Equestrian Statue Floating Down the Don River,”

Rosemary Mayer

Kara Walker

Isaac Julien

Decolonise Fest: for punx of colour:

Making Histories Visible: